Online Poker Resources


The Poker Dictionary

A dictionary of poker terms, terminology and  poker lingo

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
| N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
The highest or lowest card in the deck. In a high only poker game, the ace is always high with the exception of a 5 high straight, A,2,3,4,5.
Ace High
A poker hand where the Ace plays, there is no pair.
Ace High Straight Flush
A royal flush, A,K,Q,J,10 all of the same suit.
Ace To Five Lowball
A poker game played for low hands. Straights and flushes do not count in this game. The ace can be used as a low card, meaning the best possible hand is a wheel.
Aces and Spaces
A term used in a poker game meaning a pair of Aces and 3 worthless cards. As if saying "Aces and nothing to go with it."
Aces Up
This is when a player has two pair, one of which is Aces. Since Aces are the highest possible pair, you say Aces up or Aces over (meaning they are higher than the second pair)
To check, fold, raise, call etc., to make a play. See action.
To raise, reraise, check, fold, call etc. constitutes action. The dealer may say "There was no action", meaning no one has called, folded, raised etc. Action also means there is a lot of betting and raising going on. "This game has a lot of action."
All In
When a player puts his last chip or chips in the pot, he or she is all in for that pot. If there is more action after that all in bet, the player that was all in is only eligible for the main pot, a side pot is created for the other players left in the hand.
American Airlines
A term used when you have a pair of Aces. Since the logo for American Airlines is two red As, it is meant to be the Ace of hearts and the Ace of diamonds, although it is commonly referred to as any two Aces. Also known as pocket rockets, and bullets.
This is a forced bet put into the pot by all players before the hand is dealt.
A small card, usually meaning a 2,3,4 or 5.
Back Door
In Texas Hold'em, a back door is when a hand is made using the turn and river cards. In other words if you have 2 clubs in the hole, 1 club falls on the flop, and you must hit a club on the turn and river to make your flush. See also runner runner.
Back Into
You back into a hand when you are intentionally in the pot to make a different hand than the one you ended up with. For example, if you flop a straight and up with a flush, you would say "I backed into a flush."
Someone that is paying the way of another player to play poker either in a ring game or a tournament. If you have someone back you, they are staking or providing you with your buy in, usually in return for a percentage of the winnings.
Bad Beat
Losing a hand that was the favorite or was winning until the end would be considered a bad beat. For instance if you hold 10, 10 and the flop comes 10, 10, K. You are a huge favorite, but if the turn or river is a King, you lose the hand and it's considered a bad beat.
Bad Beat Jackpot
Some poker rooms offer a bad beat jackpot where the house takes money ($1 in most cases) from each pot and puts it into a prize pool so when a bad beat occurs, the players are compensated. Normally the prize pool is distributed as follows; 50% to the losing hand, 25% to the winning hand and 25% to the remaining players at the table that were dealt in that hand.
This is the money you have to risk in poker. Many serious poker players have a separate bankroll just for poker. If you bankroll someone, you are giving them money to play with, usually in exchange for a percent of their profit.
Belly Buster
Slang for inside straight or gut shot.
To put money into the pot, betting is considered action.
Bet Blind
To make a bet without looking at your hand. Usually referring to Texas Hold'em before the turn or the river card.
A slang term for a wheel or 5 high straight. ie. A, 2, 3, 4, 5
Big Bet
Term used for the larger bet, in a $10-$20 game, the big bet would be considered $20.
Big Blind
The big blind is similar to an ante but it is a forced bet in the second position to the left of the dealer button. The big blind is a full bet and the small blind is trypically half of the full bet of the first betting round.
Slang term for a card that gives no help to your hand, or to the board. "I caught a blank" meaning nothing.
Blind Raise
When a player raises without looking at his/her hand or cards. Similar to betting blind.
To bet, raise or reraise with the worst hand, in hopes that the remaining players will fold. Bluffing is pretending you have a big hand when you do not.
The exposed cards, also called community cards, in many poker games such as Texas Hold'em and Omaha. "The board plays" means the best possible poker hand is showing within the community cards, or the playable high card is on the flop, turn or river.
Board in a stud game means the exposed cards.
A slang term for a full house.
Bottom Pair
The lowest ranking pair on the board. If you have 3, 4 in the hole, and the board is 3, 5, 8, J, K, you have bottom pair.
Boxed Card
A card that is turned face up in the deck.
Bring In or Bring It In
This is a forced bet usually for the low card in a Stud poker game, although in some poker games the high card brings it in.
This is a slang term for a straight to the Ace, 10, J, Q, K, A
Slang for a pair of Aces, also known as pocket rockets and American Airlines.
Burn or Burn Card
Discarding the top card in the deck in order to reduce the chances of players getting advance information about cards to come. Any time a card is discarded from the top of the deck face down, it's called a burn card. In Texas Hold'em a burn card is taken off the top of the deck and placed face down next to the flop.
Busted Hand
Normally a hand that missed a straight or flush. "I have a busted hand" meaning a 4 card flush or 4 card straight, a losing hand.
A plastic disc that says "button" on it, used to determine where the action is, the button is always the last one to act in a board game. Also known as the dealer button.
The amount of money needed to sit in a live poker game or a poker tournament.
To call is to match the current bet or raise. Calling is considered a passive play, besides a check, it's the cheapest way to continue playing the hand.
Calling Station
A term used to describe how a player plays his/her hands. Someone that is a calling station is in a lot of hands, doesn't do much raising, just calls. A calling station is always welcome in a poker game, this player will pay you off when you have big hands. A calling station will also catch back door flushes, straights and a lot of one card outs so it can be aggravating but in the long run, a calling station will lose their money in the game of poker.
Case Card
Referring to one card, the only card left in the deck that has not been exposed to the players. "He caught the case card to make his full house" would mean there was only one card left in the deck that could complete his hand.
To make no bet and see the next card. Checking is action and means you get a card for free, no bet, if everyone else also checks.

Check Raise
When you check, someone else makes a bet, then you raise. To check raise is part of the game of poker, it is legal in almost every card room. You would check raise if you are sure someone acting after you is going to bet, it is done to get the most money in the pot possible, or to get people out of the pot, depending on your position and the position of the bettor.

Check Blind
Same as bet blind, but it's a check.
Poker chips are small round discs usually made of clay. These substitute money in a poker game. Not always but usually black represents $100, green $25, red $5 and white $1.
Chop can mean to split the blinds, in a live poker game or sometimes the chop is slang for the rake, or house money.
Cold Deck
Slang term for a deck that has been set up by a cheat or cheaters with the winning hand predetermined.
Community Cards
These cards are face up shared by all the players. Flop games such as Texas Hold'em and Omaha have community cards.
Crazy Pineapple
A poker game that is a variation of Pineapple. Players are dealt 3 cards face down and discard one after the flop. The game is then played out like Texas Hold'em.
When a single deck of cards is separated into two stacks. The dealer cuts the cards after shuffling and before he/she deals the cards to the players.
Dark Bet
Same as bet blind.
Dead Man's Hand
Slang for a pair of Aces and Eights, all black meaning spades or clubs.
Dead Money
Money that has been put into the pot by players that have already folded.
To pass out the cards to players in a poker game.
The person who deals the cards to the players in a poker game.
Dealer Button
See button.
52 playing cards make up a deck. 53 cards are in a deck if a Joker is used. A deck consists of 4 suits and 13 denominations or ranks.
The denomination of each card in the deck is its number from two (deuce) through ten, or is Jack, Queen, King or Ace.
Also denomination refers to a chip, it's monetary value.
Deuces are the number two denomination in a deck of cards. Often mispelled as dueces. Also called ducks or quackers.
Deuce to Seven Lowball
A poker game played for the low where 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 no flush is the best poker hand. Also called Kansas City or Kansas City Lowball.
To throw your cards away.
Double Belly Buster
Two inside straight draws in one hand. If your hand is 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, you would need a 5 or a 9 to make the straight. Also called a double gut shot.
Double Gut Shot
See Double Belly Buster
To receive one or more cards with intentions to improve your hand. 5 Card Draw is a draw poker game.
You can also be on a draw, if you have a 4 card flush or straight, you are on a draw.
Drawing Dead
A term used when you stay in a hand and can't possibly improve your hand enough to win the pot. If a player has a flush and you are drawing to a straight, even if you make your straight you lose, therefore you are drawing dead.
Draw Lowball
A poker game where the lowest hand wins, this is a draw game.
Slang for Deuces or twos. Also called quackers.
A common mispelling of deuces
Early Position
This is when a player acts before all or most of the other players.
Eight or Better
The requirement for a low hand, in order to receive the low half of the pot you must have an 8 (eight) low or better.
Expected Value
This is the rate in a dollar amount of profit or loss you can expect over the long run.
Face Card
A Jack, Queen or King in a deck of cards. Also called a picture card.
Family Pot
A term used when there is many players involved in the pot.
A hand that is expected to win, a pair of Aces before the flop is a big favorite over a pair of Kings.
Fifth Street
The fifth and final card in a board game, also known as the river. In a stud game, fifth street is the fifth card dealt.
A player that is a consistent loser in the game of poker.
Five Card Draw
A high only poker game where each player receives 5 cards with the option to exchange up to 3 for new cards. There is a round of betting after the cards are dealt, and one round of betting after the players draw for new cards.
Five Card Stud
A poker game where each player receives 5 cards, the first is face down and the following 4 cards are dealt face up.
The first three community cards displayed on the board in games such as Texas Hold'em and Omaha. The flop is always dealt simultaneously, all 3 cards are dealt face up at once.
A hand containing any five cards in the same suit like 5 spades or 5 diamonds.
To fold is to discard your hand or throw it in the muck.
Four of a Kind
A hand containing four cards of the same denomination like 7, 7, 7, 7, K. The fifth card is irrelevant. Also known as quads.
Fourth Street
The fourth card in a board game, also known as the turn. In a stud game, fourth street is the fourth card dealt.
A poker tournament that has no rebuys, once your chips are gone you are out of the tournament. Also called a shootout.
Full Boat
Slang term for full house.
Full House
Three of a kind and a pair like 10, 10, 10, K, K. Also called a full boat.
Garbage Hand
A bad hand which will let you win nothing. A garbage hand if dealt, should be discarded.
Slang term for a pair of Kings, taken from the movie King Kong.
Green can be cash in a poker game or a term for the chip that is monetarily worth $25 which is colored green in most casinos. Also called a green bird.
Grind or Grinder
To grind is to play tight in a lower limit poker game and take the small wins. A grinder will win smaller amounts but consistently.
Gut Shot
Another term for an Inside Straight
Your hand is considered the cards that were dealt to you.
A hand is also the overall meaning of everything that happens in between shuffles, the cards are shuffled, the dealer deals out the cards to the players, there is action, a winner is declared and the pot is pushed to the winner.
Head Up or Heads Up
This term is used when there are only 2 players in the pot. It means one on one.
Another term for the best hand.
High in a stud game means the highest card or cards showing on the board.
One is said to win the high in a high-low split game, high being the high half of the pot.
High Card
In some poker games the high card will bring it in, high cards are considered face cards or an Ace. If someone says "high card plays" it's the highest card in your hand.
High Low Split
This is a form of poker where half the pot goes to the high hand and half the pot goes to the low hand. Most High Low games have an 8 (eight) or better qualifier to determine who qualifies for the low hand. Shortened term is Hi-Lo.
Hit and Run
This is what poker players say when a player sits in a game for a very short time, wins a big pot and leaves the game.
Shortened name for the game of Texas Hold'em.
Hole or Hole Cards
In a stud game, hole cards are the down cards or unexposed cards. In Texas Hold'em hole cards are the pocket cards.
Slang term for the Jack in a deck of cards.
A poker game where 5 different forms of poker are played, one per rotation or round. H is for Hold'em, O is for Omaha Hi Lo, R is for Razz, S is for Seven Card Stud, E is for Eight or Better.
The establishment running the game.
Implied Odds or Implied Pot Odds
These are your estimated odds. If you have a big hand and are certain a player or players behind you are going to call your bet or raise, you have good implied odds. Also to know players will call your bet if you make your hand, these are implied odds.
In the Middle
You are caught in the middle if your position is in between a bettor and a raiser.
Inside Straight
Four cards to a straight where the one card you need to complete the straight is in the middle of the run. For instance, with a 4c, 5h, 7d, 8c you would need a six of any suit to complete the straight. Also called a gut shot or belly buster.
Inside Straight Flush
The same as an inside straight except that the cards must all be of the same suit.
Jack It Up
Slang term for raise.
This is a card that usually plays as a wild card. Jokers are not used in the poker rooms but sometimes in a private home game. If a deck has a joker in it, there will now be 53 cards in the deck instead of 52.
Kansas City
See Deuce To Seven Lowball. Also called Lowball and Kansas City Lowball.
To watch a game of poker rather than play. A kibitzer is the person watching the poker game.
If you have a pair of Aces with a King, the King is the kicker. It is the highest card that is not a part of a pair. A poker hand with a straight, flush or full house would not have a kicker since all 5 cards play.

Kill or Kill Pot
A kill is used to stimulate action. In some games a kill is used when the same player wins two pots in a row, then the killer posts the bet (usually double the normal big blind) causing the betting limits to go up for just that hand. The player posting the bet is the "killer," and the hand is considered a "kill pot." In Omaha Hi-Lo a pot is killed when someone scoops the whole pot.

A name for the Queen in a deck of cards.
Last Position
The last one to act in any particular round.
Late Position
This is when a player is one of the last to act in any particular betting round.
Limit Poker
A structured poker game where there are fixed betting amounts as opposed to a No Limit or Pot Limit game.
Little Blind
The little blind is similar to an ante but it is a forced bet in the first position to the left of the dealer button. The little blind is half the amount of the big blind.
Live Blind
This is a blind that is allowed to raise whether or not another player has done so.
Long Run
This is the term used for a period of time. "In the long run a good, solid poker player will be a winning player."
A poker game played out like Five Card Draw where the best low hand takes the pot.
Main Pot
This is the pot where any all in players can partake. A side pot is made once the all in player(s) has no more chips to bet with.
Middle Position
The position a player is in at a poker table, somewhere in the middle, not early or late position.
A misdeal is declared when the dealer deals the cards out of order, deals someone out of the hand that should of been in or for several other reasons. When a misdeal is declared the dealer redeals the hand.
Mop Squeezer
Slang term for a Queen or Lady in a deck of cards.
The discard pile. Where players throw their cards to when they are folding. Any cards that hit the muck are ineligible to win a pot.
A $5 chip or redbird.
Also means a 5 (five) as in the denomination on a playing card. "I had a pair of nickels." would mean a pair of fives.
No Brainer
This is poker slang for a hand that anyone could of played correctly.
No Limit
A poker game in which you can bet or raise any amount, including going all in anytime you want. Players are only allowed to bet as much as they have in front of them.
This is a poker term meaning the best possible hand. Used in board games such as Texas Hold'em and Omaha mostly. If the board is showing 10, 9, 4, K, Q all off suit, the nuts would be A, J in your hand.
The likelihood that an event will happen or the probability of making or not making a hand. It is very important for a poker player to know the odds on hitting flushes, straights etc. when considering pot odds.
Off Suit
No flush is present, or cards showing of different suits. In Texas Hold'em if you say "I had Ace King off suit" you mean the Ace was a different suit than the King.
A poker game where the players are dealt 4 cards face down. This is a very popular poker game similar to Texas Hold'em. The players must use two of the four cards and two from the board. If you are dealt four of a kind, then you only have a pair, with little chance to improve. Omaha is a high only game.
Omaha Hi-Lo
The same poker game as Omaha but there is a winner for the best high hand and a winner for the best low hand, the low must be an 8 or better to qualify.
One Card Out
When only one card in the deck can improve your hand.
One On One
See Head Up
To open is to bring it in or be the first one to act in the first betting round.
Open Ended Straight
This is a four card straight where you need a card on either side to complete your hand. If you have 4, 5, 6, 7 a three or an eight will complete the straight. Also called an up and down straight.
Any live blind has the option of raising when it comes to their turn. The dealer may say "You have an option" when the action comes to the big blind.
This means the number of cards that will improve your hand or make your hand a winner. If you have an open ended straight, there are 8 cards in the deck to make you a winner so you have 8 outs.
Used in Texas Hold'em when you hold a bigger pair than the board is showing possible. If you hold a pair of Aces, and board has no Ace, you have an overpair.

Two cards of the same denomination or rank. A pair beats a high card, but two pairs beat a pair.

Pat Hand
A hand where all five initially dealt cards are a winning hand, such as a dealt straight or a flush. It is necessary to keep all five cards as no other card can improve your winning hand. You would say "I don't need any cards, I have a pat hand." in a draw poker game.
Picture Cards
See face card.
A poker game where the players are dealt 3 cards face down and discard one before the flop. The game is then played out like Texas Hold'em.
Pocket Cards
This is a term used for the two cards you are dealt face down before the flop in a Texas Hold'em game.
Pocket Rockets
Slang for a pair of Aces. Also known as American Airlines and bullets.
There are many card games known as poker. For the most part all poker games have a few things in common, they have betting rounds and the winner of the hand is determined by the ranking of the hand. Poker is played in land based casinos, private home games and online. Poker can be played in a ring game or tournament.
This is where a player is sitting in relation to the other players at the poker table. The best position is last to act or the button since you will then know how the other players act before your turn. Poker players tend to play tighter in early position and loosen up in late position.
This is an amount put into the pot before the cards are dealt. Putting up an ante, big blind or little blind would be posting.
This is the money gathered in the middle of the table, including the blinds, all bets, raises etc. The winner(s) of the hand receives the pot.
Pot Limit
A poker structure in which the player can bet or raise only up to the size of the pot.
Pot Odds
The amount of money in the pot versus the amount of money it will cost you to continue in the hand. This is a mathematical solution that will decide whether or not a call is worth it in the long run.
Before the flop.
Prop Player
A poker player that is employeed by the house. One who is paid to play in the game to keep it from breaking up. A prop player is usually paid hourly to play, and uses his/her own money to play in the poker game.
Slang for deuces or ducks.
Slang for four of a kind.
A minimum standard that a hand must meet in order to win. Usually applied to the low side of a high-low poker game. See also eight or better.
A $25 chip, also called a green bird.
To get quartered in a high-low game is when two players had the same low. They split the low, which was half of the pot, therefore the low was quartered or they received 25% of the pot.
A plastic tray used in the land based casinos to hold your playing chips. A rack will hold 100 chips, 5 stacks containing 20 chips each.
A card that does not fit into your hand in any useful way.
A person standing on the rail watching a poker game. Normally this is an ex-player who is now broke.
Placing a higher wager into the pot, over the original bet. All other players must call that bet or reraise in order to stay in that hand.
This is the house money. Most card rooms take a small percentage of the pot for hosting the poker game.
The numerical value of a card or it's denomintion.
A Seven Card Stud poker game played for the low (ace to five) only.
This is a very important skill for a poker player, to read someone is to know how they play, notice their tells, betting patterns etc.
This usually refers to poker tournaments, to rebuy is to get more chips once you have no more chips in front of you. Some rebuy tournaments allow only one rebuy, where some allow several rebuys up to a certain point in the tournament.
To raise after someone has already made a raise.
Ring Game
This is a live poker game rather than a tournament where players come and go as they please.
The fifth and final community card in board games like Texas Hold'em and Omaha. You may of heard someone say "You caught me on the river." This means the player made his hand on the very last card. Also known as fifth street.
This is a slang term for a very tight poker player. Someone who plays very few and only premium hands, many rocks are very predictable.
Rolled Up
This is a term used in a Seven Card Stud game when the first three cards are three of a kind.
A round of hands is one full rotation around the table. If there are 10 players at a poker table, the round is over when all 10 players have held the button.
A betting round is started after the initial cards are dealt, and finished when the last bet, call, raise or fold is made.
Royal Flush
A hand containing and Ten, Jack, Queen, King, Ace in the same suit. This is the highest possible hand in any poker game not using wild cards.
Runner Runner
This term is used when a player makes their hand on the last two cards, usually referring to Texas Hold'em on the turn and the river cards. If a player is holding a pair of Aces and the turn and river is each an Ace, that player made runner runner four Aces.
See also back door.
This term is used in high-low games, meaning a player won the high and the low, so that player scooped the entire pot.
Seven Card Stud
A very popular poker game where each player is dealt 7 cards, the first two are face down, the next four are face up and the final card is dealt face down. There is a round of betting after the first three cards and after each individual card dealt. Stud is usually played with a small ante and a forced bring-in on third street. In limit games, the bet size usually increases on fifth street.
This refers to the amount of players in a given poker game, usually less than six players is considered a shorthanded game.
See freezeout.
This is done by the dealer, the deck of cards is mixed and rearranged so when the cards are dealt the outcome is unpredictable.
Side Pot
This is a separate pot aside from the main pot where the active players that still have money may partake. The all-in player is not involved in the side pot.
Sixth Street
The sixth card dealt in a Seven Card Stud game.
Smooth Call
This is a call of one or more bets when in actuality this hand is strong enough to raise. When a player smooth calls, it's usually to trap other players so more money is put into the pot.
Steel Wheel
Slang term for a straight flush to the five. A, 2, 3, 4, 5 of the same suit.
Five cards not in the same suit in an unbroken sequence like 3h, 4s, 5s, 6h, 7h.
Straight Flush
Five cards in the same suit in an unbroken sequence like 4h, 5h, 6h, 7h, 8h.
Stud is a type of poker game, Five Card Stud and Seven Card Stud are stud games.
In a deck of cards, each card that is not a wild card is in one of the four suits: Clubs, Diamonds, Hearts or Spades.
Table Stakes
This usualy implies that a player in a particular poker game may only bet money they have on the table at the beginning of a hand. For instance an all-in player can not take money out of his/her pocket in the middle of the hand, this player must only be allowed to win the main pot.
Sometimes table stakes means a no limit poker game.
A poker game that is similar to Texas Hold'em or Pineapple, each player receives three cards face down before the flop. The player may use none, one or two cards of the three, but not all three to make the best five card poker hand with the board.
Texas Hold'em
A poker game where each player is dealt 2 cards face down. This is a flop or board game, where five community cards are dealt face-up on the table. There are four rounds of betting: after the pocket cards are dealt, after the flop, after the turn, and after the river card. In this game, the player can use none, one or two of his pocket cards to make the best five card poker hand with or without the board cards. Also called Hold'em for short.
Third Street
This is the first round of betting in a Stud poker game. It consists of the first two down cards and the third card dealt which is face up.
Three of a Kind
A hand containing three cards of the same denomination like 10, 10, 10, 5, 3. The other two cards are irrelevant. Also called trips.
A tight player is one that plays very few hands.
To play wildly or recklessly. A player is said to be "on tilt" if he is not playing his best, playing too many hands, trying wild bluffs, raising with bad hands, etc.
A poker tournament is when all players start with the same amount in chips. The winner is determined when one player has all the chips. Tournaments are run differently from card room to card room. There is a predetermined payout schedule for the winner or players that finish in the tournament. Usually this depends on the amount of players that entered.
The number three denomination in a deck of cards.
Triple Draw Lowball
A variation of Ace to Five Lowball where the players get three draws instead of one to improve their hand. There is 4 betting rounds in this game, one after the first five cards are dealt and one after each draw.
Slang for three of a kind.
The fourth community card in a board game such as Texas Hold'em or Omaha. The turn is dealt after the flop and before the river.
Two Pairs
A hand containing any two pairs of cards like J, J, K, K, 2. The fifth card is irrelevant.
A person or hand who is not mathematically favored to win a pot. For instance, if you flop four cards to your flush, you are not quite a 2:1 underdog to make your flush by the river (that is, you will make your flush about one in three times).
Under The Gun
This is the first player to act following the blinds. See also position.
Up Card
This would be any card that plays face up in a players hand.
Typically this means either that you believe you will receive action from hands not as good as yours, or that the chance you will win the hand makes the bet worthwhile.
To wager is to bet.
This is a straight to the five. A, 2, 3, 4, 5
White Chip
Normally this is a $1 chip, sometimes it's used to refer to any chip of a smaller denomination.
Wild or Wild Card
A card that may be used to substitute for any other card in the deck, such as a joker.
Winning Hand
A winning hand is a hand that takes the pot in a poker game. This hand beats all the other players' hands that are still active in the pot.
Wired Pair
A wired pair is any pair in the hole in a Seven Card Stud game.
Wrap or Wrap Around
This term is used in Omaha when your hand is showing every straight draw possible. If the flop is 3, 7, 8 and you hold 5, 6, 9, 10, this is a complete wrap with 20 outs to make a straight.
Zilch or Zip
Nothing. A dealt hand with no cards worth holding (i.e., you should redraw all five cards) or a final hand with no payoff. Also called a garbage hand.

The Poker Dictionary of terms, terminology and lingo Proudly bought to you by: